Как да се храним, когато спортуваме?

Как да се храним, когато спортуваме?

Разнообразната, здравословна, но с минимално съдържание на наситени, животински мазнини храна подпомага положителния ефект от спорта. Ако трябва да добавяте мазнини, то нека са добрите мазнини като чистите растителни масла, например – зехтина, във възможно най-необработения му вариант. Избягвайте преработените храни и бързите въглехидрати.

Хранене преди спорт

Мускулите се нуждаят от енергия, а най-важния източник на това са бавните въглехидрати – пълнозърнест хляб, паста, овесени ядки, кафяв ориз и картофи. Въпреки че фруктозата от плодовете, също е бърз въглехидрат, не бива да ги изключвате от менюто си, а напротив защото съдържат фибри и витамини, които сподпомагат метаболитния процес. При обмяната на веществата бавните въглехидрати се превръщат в глюкоза, която се съхранява в кръвта, мускулите и черния дроб като гликоген (енергийното гориво на вашето тяло). Когато са ви излишни (прекомерен прием), организъма ви ги складира като мазнини, но когато спортувате, организъма черпи тези запаси за около 90 минути. Ако те липсват, кръвната захар се понижава и се появява виене на свят, гадене и усещане за цялостна слабост. Затова, не спортувайте гладни! Приемайте добра и здравословна храна до 1.5-2 часа преди тренировка. Подходяща храна може да бъде: филия пълнозърнест хляб с обезмаслена извара, обезмаслено кисело мляко с овесени ядки, плодове – ябълка, киви, ягоди, банан. При изразходването на енергията по време на спорт като вторичен ефект върху организъма се образува отделяне на топлина. Нормалната реакция на организъма е да се охлади чрез отделяне на пот. Загубата на течности по време на спорт варира от 0.5 до 1.5 литра, което е в пряка зависимост от температурата на средата, в която спортувате и натоварването. Ако този воден дефицит не се възстанови, рискувате проблеми в кръвообращението и появата на мускулни спазми. За да предотвратите появата на тези странични ефекти, изпивайте 0.5 литра вода 1 час преди тренировка, а по време на физическите натоварвания, приемайте течности на регулярни интервали и на малки глътки.

Хранене след спорт

След като спортувате е важно да приемете първо течностите и след това храна, богата на белтъчини, протеини с минимално съдържание на мазнини. Протеините са отговорни за растежа, възстановяването и изграждането на клетките във вашето тяло. По време на тренировка, мускулите са изтощени и дори леко увредени и затова тялото ви има нужда от повече протеин след тренировка. Ето защо при приема на протеин след тренировка, мускулите се възстановяват по-бързо и могат да натрупват повече маса. За постигане на балансирано хранене, можете да попълните въглехидратния дефицит в следствие на физичските натоварвания с пресни зеленчуци, дори и плодове или въглехидратни напитки без консерванти. Също така не бива да забравяте допълнителния прием на витамини и минерали, които също се изчерпват по-бързо когато спортувате активно или водите интензивен начин на живот.

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